Over the last century, U.S. officials have removed more people than they’ve allowed to remain in the country on a permanent basis. This fact, simple but shocking — at least for anyone who thinks of the U.S. as a nation of immigrants — came from Adam Goodman, author of “The Deportation Machine: America’s Long History of Expelling Immigrants,” during a Los Angeles Times Festival of Books panel Saturday on immigrants and American society.

For years, whenever Japanese Americans would get together after World War II, one question would come up: “Which camp were you in?”